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 All images copyrighted, 2016, 2017 Oso:ah Foundation and James Cachat.

All rights reserved; duplication prohibited.


Note: There are no bones or artifacts at sacred prayer sites.  Prayers, stones and spirits make up these spaces.  Please respect the sacred prayer places.

Perched boulders near Kemeyayeu-ut, a special form of offering space.

Kßht˘quwuk at Tohkekomuash (north), a ritual prayer feature. Some sites contain hundreds of prayer and offering relics.

Paired kßht˘quwuk at Tohkekomuash (south). This is a sacred "no entry" space, please respect. Thank you

Damaged Tűnuppusuonk kßht˘quwuk; there are often many of these at a sacred site.

For More Information, read "A Quantitative Analysis of Stone Relics in a Western Massachusetts Town," Fall 2016 issue of Bulletin of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society.

Tűnuppusuonk - turtle effigies - are found mostly to east of sacred sites (here, at Waabemiskig).

Turtle effigy at Tohkekomuash - north site.

Carapace of turtle effigy (at Yawsipuwisset), showing typical small, round stones (most less than 6" wide). Head is to lower right.

Turtle effigy being "subsumed" by leaves, soil and trees. Head is being dislodged.

Partly damaged turtle effigy with quartz head

This Kahtoquwuk (at Pashpishont) is more than 1/2 buried in soil and leaves. Some top stones were removed by careless visitors.

Do you see sacred relics? One reason why many have survived.

Anogkueu kahtoquwuk (west of Mishephausuonket) - these are always ~2m wide and 4-6 concentric rings of small stone

Giant effigy at Pashpishont. Several rocks 10-12' long are perched on stacks of small rock "feet."

Another "subsumed" kahtoquwuk at Pashpishont, about 1/2 buried. Top stones are intact in this case. Many relics are in the process of being subsumed by soil and leaves.

This free-stading Sunsh Nipamu (west of Kinkiyungkwallak) is just under 2m tall, over 1/3m wide, with ancient lichens covering its top